By Giampiero Ausili Cefaro, Carlos A. Perez, Domenico Genovesi, Annamaria Vinciguerra
From the reviews:
"This is a concise advisor to radiological definitions of lymph node teams for radiation remedy making plans. … the first viewers is radiation oncologists in any respect levels in their careers. citizens and scholars may still locate this a truly invaluable anatomical consultant. The authors are popular in radiation oncology and/or radiology. … it is a helpful advisor for the lymph node anatomy of the foremost ailment web site regions." (James G. Douglas, Doody’s assessment carrier, July, 2009)
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Extra resources for A Guide for Delineation of Lymph Nodal Clinical Target Volume in Radiation Therapy
3 a,b Illustration of the classification of regional lymph nodes of the stomach according to the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. a Anterior view with cross-section of stomach and pancreas. b Detail of the location of the lymph nodes around the abdominal aorta. c Detail of the location of lymph nodes in the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm, of the infradiaphragmatic nodes and para-aortic nodes. 5 – Classification of regional lymph nodes of the stomach according to the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) Name Description 1 Right paracardial nodes Located at the level of the esophagogastric junction, along the branch of the left gastric artery 2 Left paracardial nodes Located to the left of the cardia.
For instance, the nodes located along the pelvic walls are continuously connected to the internal and external iliac vessels and therefore cannot be characterized distinctly. Moreover, the surgical field is narrow, making it difficult to evaluate the anatomical boundaries of individual lymph node stations; detailed pathological examination of these lymph nodes is moreover altered by infiltrating fatty and fibrous tissue and by inflammation. As for the lymph nodes draining the female genitalia, after the initial description of the lymphatic system made by Reiffenstuhl  in 1964 and Plentl and Friedman  in 1971, an attempt to establish a classification of the lymph nodes of interest to gynecological oncology was made by Mangan et al.
Greer et al. 4 cm cranially. Bonin et al.  using lymphangiography in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, evaluated the mean distance between the position of pelvic lymph nodes and some landmarks on the pelvic bones. Zunino et al.  also evaluated adequacy of CTV coverage in carcinoma of the uterine cervix obtained by the traditional box technique and, by means of an anatomical study on human cadavers, identified the aortic bifurcation and the position of the pelvic lymph nodes. 5 cm (15%) from the sacral promontory and that it is located at the level of the inferior edge of the L4 vertebra in 80% of cases.
A Guide for Delineation of Lymph Nodal Clinical Target Volume in Radiation Therapy by Giampiero Ausili Cefaro, Carlos A. Perez, Domenico Genovesi, Annamaria Vinciguerra