By James H. Green
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Some bridges may deliberately or inadvertently develop more than one path between segments. This condition is prohibited by the Ethernet protocol, and is prevented by using a protocol known as spanning tree. More frequently, a routing protocol such as IP is used and the network is connected through routers. The TCP/IP protocol falls under the blanket of packet switching. S. Department of Defense initially conceived packet switching as a security measure. If a message is broken into small packets and sent through the core network over random patterns, it is difficult to reassemble the message except at the access point.
Where the T1/E1s supporting DLCs are provisioned over fiber from the central office, it is not difficult to equip the copper cable extension for DSL. One alternative is simply to install a DSLAM in the enclosure housing the DLC equipment and separate voice and data at that point. Specialized DLCs are available that are equipped with combination line cards and with the DSLAM function built into the system. They do not, however, work with legacy DLCs. Enclosures in which both POTS and DSL are collocated are often called neighborhood gateways.
Drop wire is bridged across a pair, but the cable extending beyond is normally not trimmed off, also resulting in unterminated bridged tap. The party line has gradually surrendered to the individual line, which relieves subscribers of the contention that once characterized the telephone system. Some of the vestiges of multiple plant remain, however, and have an adverse impact on high-frequency transmission. At the heart of the local telephone network is the wire center, which is the building in which copper cable and fiber extending to the subscriber terminate.
Access technologies : DSL and cable by James H. Green