By American College of Chest Physicians
ACCP severe Care drugs Board evaluation: twenty first Edition
Chapter 1. Endocrine Emergencies unfastened TO VIEW
Chapter 2. Postoperative Crises
Chapter three. Mechanical Ventilation
Chapter four. Hypertensive Emergencies and Urgencies
Chapter five. being pregnant and demanding Illness
Chapter 6. Venous Thromboembolic Disease
Chapter 7. Acute Coronary Syndromes
Chapter eight. middle Failure and Cardiac Pulmonary Edema
Chapter nine. Acute and protracted Liver Failure within the ICU
Chapter 10. Hemodynamic Monitoring
Chapter eleven. Tachycardia and Bradycardia within the ICU
Chapter 12. Infections in AIDS sufferers and different Immunocompromised Hosts
Chapter thirteen. Liberation From Mechanical Ventilation
Chapter 14. Trauma and Burns
Chapter 15. Airway administration, Sedation, and Paralytic Agents
Chapter sixteen. Acute Lung Injury/Acute respiration misery Syndrome
Chapter 17. Coma and Delirium
Chapter 18. the intense stomach, Pancreatitis, and the belly Compartment Syndrome
Chapter 19. Hypothermia/Hyperthermia and Rhabdomyolysis
Chapter 20. Ventilatory Crises
Chapter 21. Poisonings and Overdoses
Chapter 22. Anemia and RBC Transfusion within the ICU
Chapter 23. Shock
Chapter 24. Coagulopathies, Bleeding problems, and Blood part Therapy
Chapter 25. Gastrointestinal Bleeding within the ICU
Chapter 26. Nutrition
Chapter 27. Resuscitation: Cooling, medications, and Fluids
Chapter 28. moral matters in extensive Care Medicine
Chapter 29. studying medical study and figuring out Diagnostic exams in severe Care Medicine
Chapter 30. Imaging
Chapter 31. method of Acid-Base Disorders
Chapter 32. serious Pneumonia
Chapter 33. ICU instructions, most sensible Practices, and Standardization
Chapter 34. prestige Epilepticus, Stroke, and elevated Intracranial Pressure
Chapter 35. Derangements of Serum Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium
Chapter 36. Antibiotic treatment in severe Illness
Chapter 37. Transplant-Related Issues
Chapter 38. Acute Kidney damage within the ICU
Chapter 39. frightened procedure Infections and Catheter Infections
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Additional info for ACCP Critical Care Medicine Board Review: 21st Edition 2012
This is recognized at the bedside when the patient makes obvious efforts that fail to produce a breath. Using waveforms, these ineffective efforts cause a temporary slowing of expiratory flow, sometimes halting it completely. Full rest of the respiratory muscles has an adverse consequence: active disuse atrophy, termed ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD). Within hours of full respiratory Chapter 3. 16 Active diaphragm contraction is able to reduce the risk of VIDD, suggesting that most patients should be ventilated in a way to preserve some active effort.
For example, CPAP of 40 cmH2O for 40 s has often been chosen. Although these maneuvers have shown some ability to transiently raise the PO2, they have not been shown to change clinically meaningful outcomes. The VT should be 6 mL/kg on ACV; a higher VT is associated with higher mortality. Potentially, PACV could be used as well, but the parameters that ensure lung-protective ventilation are not known. In either mode, the respiratory rate should be set at 24 to 36/min. An occasional consequence of lung-protective ventilation is hypercapnia.
Then the ventilator is used as a probe of the patient’s respiratory system mechanical derangements, and ventilator settings are tailored to the patient’s mechanical and gas exchange abnormalities. Modes of ventilation are analyzed and key ventilation concepts of ventilator-induced lung injury; ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction; autoPEEP; permissive hypercapnia; and the ventilator bundle are covered. The fundamental purpose of mechanical ventilation is to assist in elimination of carbon dioxide and the uptake of adequate oxygen while the patient is unable to do so or should not be allowed to do so.
ACCP Critical Care Medicine Board Review: 21st Edition 2012 by American College of Chest Physicians