By Renata Dmowska, Barry Saltzman
This sequence presents a venue for longer stories of present advances in geophysics. Written at a degree obtainable to graduate scholars, the articles serve to increase wisdom of assorted fields and should be necessary in classes and seminars.
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A unique eigendecomposition of the 30 MICHAEL E. MANN AND JEFFREY PARK variance is not possible. as the number of spatial channels M becomes large. , by conventional PCA. , 1997.. This latter step then tends to reintroduce some of the limitations of classical PCA noted above which we seek to avoid. In this sense, the usefulness of M-SSA becomes limited for spatially extensive data sets. 3. , 1995a, b; Mann and Park, 1996a, b. 1.. The MTM-SVD approach seeks to isolate statistically signiﬁcant narrowband oscillations Žwhich may be modulated or ‘‘irregular’’ in nature.
Which favors envelopes that approach zero slope at the ends of the time series. Such an inversion does not discriminate against a zero-frequency trend in the data, for example, but is poorly suited for other describing features which change rapidly near the beginning or end of the data series. , which constrains neither the mean nor the slope near the ends of the data. Mann and Park Ž1996. favor a more general data-adaptive means of time-domain signal reconstruction in which the mean-square multivariate misﬁt with the raw data is minimized over all possible linear combinations of these three constraints.
To obtain a more direct picture of the possible dynamical processes governing such signals, we analyze spatiotemporal variability jointly between surface temperature and sea-level pressure ŽSLP. records that are available for nearly a century covering much of the Northern Hemisphere Žsee Mann and Park, 1996b.. This analysis yields independent evidence for the signals discussed above and provides physical insight into possible underlying dynamical processes. The coupled oscillatory patterns of surface temperature and atmospheric circulation anomalies provide a more speciﬁc ‘‘ﬁngerprint’’ of variability for comparison with signals found in climate model simulation studies.
Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 41 by Renata Dmowska, Barry Saltzman