By Hans Ruthenberg
In early 1961 the Ho-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung (Ho-Institute for fiscal learn) confirmed an "African reports Centre" with the help of the Fritz-Thyssen-Foundation to behavior learn into the industrial and political difficulties of constructing international locations, with spe cial connection with the African countries. via investigations into thestructure and customers of improvement within the constructing nations, the experiences Centre will goal at contributing in the direction of the production of a authentic foundation, at the foundation of which the Federal Republic's increase ment coverage will be conducted successfully. during this "age of improvement" the social and monetary sciences are faced with manifold initiatives. In fixing those, interdisciplinary co operation will turn out valuable or even crucial, if incorrect and slim decisions are to be kept away from. Co-operation among scientists and institutes engaged in several branches of study will make attainable a greater und er status of the advanced practical courting which verify fiscal occasions and their mutations open air Western commercial society than may be generally accomplished through an remoted process. clever total monetary making plans, for instance, calls for technological research simply up to an exact wisdom of social constitution or actual context. At this aspect the economist needs to co-operate heavily with the engineer if he needs to prevent wasting his means in most cases styles of development. For, "des lors que nous parions (du developpement) en quantites globales, nous ne parions de rien" (LoUIs ]OSEPH LEBRET).
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Wages for non-family labour Non-agricultural income 6 1,323 325 465 Family income 7 1,463 . . . . . of family . . . 85 500 970 i Total value of agric. prod. Expenses (without wages) . Productivity Labour available, M. E. . thereof non-family labour . Family income per man unit labour, shs . . . 5 914 1 Data about Machame are an arithmetic mean of a systematic sampie of 100 farms. Data of the Agr. Dep. were obtained in an unsystematic wide spread 5urvey. They are less reliable. 2 C/J 1960 and 1961.
E. manuring of crops and fodder crop cultivation, is limited to Ukara Island on Lake Victoria, a few valleys in some mountainous areas and the banana-coffee farms of the Wachagga on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Even though the way the soil is cultivated under the systems of semipermanent and permanent cultivation cannot be much objected to, produc21 tivity remains extremely low. Usually, from the standpoint of industrialized countries, the amount of effort put in bears no relation to the returns.
The weeds are earried to the eattle shed. 5. The leaves of 11 different trees. The trees are owned privately. Leaves and twigs are regularly harvested and used for fodder, bedding, or in the eonstruetion of huts. The use of trees is commereialized. LUNAN & BREWIN report the ease of a tree owner demanding 10 shs for one eutting of leaves and twigs. 6. On the lake shore fodder grass is planted and cut several times a year. It is irrigated by trenches and ditches bringing water from Lake Vietoria.
Agricultural Development in Tanganyika by Hans Ruthenberg